Procuring-cause disputes between REALTORS® are usually settled in arbitration proceedings because of the mandatory-arbitration provision found in Article 17 of the Code of Ethics. Article 17 provides that contractual disputes between REALTORS® associated with different firms must be submitted to arbitration rather than resorting to litigation. To sue another REALTOR® for a commission in such cases and then to refuse to withdraw from or to dismiss the suit upon demand by the other party is a refusal to arbitrate under Standard of Practice 17-1. This would be a violation of the Code of Ethics. However, litigation is not a violation of Article 17 if all parties to a dispute waive their right to arbitrate. Remembered that the broker (REALTOR® principal in arbitration cases) is a necessary party to any arbitration or litigation.